About the George Finlay Papers
The George Finlay Papers contain materials created by and related to the British Historian and Philhellene George Finlay, his father John Finlay, Greek-American Philhellene George Jarvis, and British Philhellene Captain Frank Abney Hastings, dating from 1791 to 1949. Most of the collection consists of George Finlay’s meticulous records of his travels, personal and official correspondence, his personal expenditures, copious memoranda on strategy and on military and political organisation, journal entries, maps, facetiae, scrapbooks, personal notes on people—Greeks and others—and on revolutionary events, newspaper cuttings mainly on Greece and international affairs, as well as Finlay’s original manuscripts of the History of the Greek Revolution (1861) as well as corrected proofs of Finlay’s other published works.
Also included are the papers of Finlay’s father, John, two journals of Greek American philhellene, George Jarvis, and those of Finlay’s fellow British philhellene, Captain Frank Abney Hastings. The Hastings papers, which Finlay purchased in 1830, include personal and official correspondence, ship’s logs, notes that he took on board or ashore, as well as memoranda on strategy and on the naval organisation of the revolutionary forces. Collectively, these records reveal a great deal about the character, motivations, ideas, as well as the military and political judgements of these British individuals, as well as of many others, both British and Greek, with whom they interacted during the Greek War of Independence as well as many of Finlay's other interests, such as Classical and Byzantine history, natural history and politics.
The collection contains John Finlay, Frank Hastings and George Jarvis’ personal papers as well as those of George Finlay, although George Finlay’s papers form the bulk of the collection.
The collection includes correspondence, newspaper clippings, commonplace books, catalogues of books, journals, drafts of Finlay’s History of the Greece, a sketchbook, log books, commonplace books and account books. Many of the letters are pasted or copied by Finlay into letter books. These records give an overview of the Greek War of Independence and especially the role of the British philhellenes, as well as many of Finlay's other interests, such as Classical and Byzantine history, natural history and politics. Finlay had a wide range of correspondents, both Greek and British.
The collection also contains the personal papers of Frank Abney Hastings, with Hastings' naval involvement in Greece heavily represented.
Greece was one of the last European countries to adopt the newer Gregorian calendar. For most of the nineteenth century, the Julian calendar was 12 days behind the Gregorian. British correspondents in the Finlay Collection tend to use the newer calendar. Letters with two dates 12 days apart, eg. 24 April / 6 May 1828, refer to both the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Brown mottle boards, brown calf spine, 'MSS. George Finlay.' pasted on spine, handwritten, bound.
Various different MSS. bound together now numbered 1-22; 1 loose letter 20 June 1821 from Haldane, Glasgow, on the rules of the Institution in Glasgow for the encouragement of the Fine Arts.
(1) Observations on Heeren's Vermischte historische Schriften and Handbuch der Geschichte des europäischen Staatenssystems, written at Göttingen March 1823 (paginated 1-40).
(2) 'Notes written on my first visit to Greece in 1823 and 1824. My journal I wrote was lost and the memoranda I wrote in quarantine at Ancona must be in Glasgow with my cousin John Finlay' (3 sides unpaginated).
(3) Reflections on 'the present revolution in Greece' (42 sides unpaginated).
(4) 'Words composing the Cypher of the Sultan. The Emperor Sultan Mahmoud son of Sultan Mustapha ever victorious' (4 sides unpaginated).
(5) 'Journal of a Tour in Sicily and return through Italy to England 1825' (5 April- 6 July 1825, 36 sides unpaginated).
(6) On the state of Political Naval and Military affairs in Greece, written at Egina July 1827 (26 sides paginated 1-26).
(7) Observations on His Royal Highness Prince Leopold's Resignation of the Sovereignty of Greece by George Finlay Esqr. A note at the beginning runs: 'The following observations . . . are the fruits of a long devotion to the cause of Greece. Egina 12 July 1830' (paginated 1-28).
(8) Four letters. I. To Alex. Mavrocordatos Esqr, Secretary of State for Finance (7 sides). 15/27 June 1833, signed Προμηθεύς.
(9) II. [To the same.] (Seven sides.) Undated, signed Προμηθευς.
(10) III. [To the same]. (Ten sides.) Undated, unsigned.
(11) IV. To the Greek people. (Nine sides.) Undated, signed Prometheus.
(12) A further letter (14 sides). 'My dear Sir', ending 'Adieu' and unsigned.
(13) 'Letter on the State of the Plan of Athens, 28 May 1834. Sent to Messrs D'Eichthal Weissenberg and Masson'; written below is a note from George Finlay to Noel asking for his views on this.
(14) On need for social order in Greece (8 sides loose and paginated in part).
(15) Memorandum on the situation in Greece. Salona, April 1824 (21 sides un paginated).
(16) On the formation of regular troops in Greece. Ancona, 16 November 1826 (9 sides paginated in part).
(17) Printed notice (3 sides) : Institution in Glasgow for the encouragement of the Fine Arts, signed by George Finlay, Secretary, July 1821.
(18) Letter (loose) dated Glasgow, 20 June 1821, to George Finlay from J. Haldane [who became one of the Directors of the British School at Athens] protesting that the principles of management were not sufficiently liberal.
(19) 'On the Progress of Civil Liberty in Modern Europe' (25 sides paginated 1-25). Paper read in the Speculative Society of Glasgow, 26 March 1821.
(20) 'Some Observations on the commercial situation and policy of Great Britain' (24 sides paginated 1-24). Paper read in the Literary and Commercial Society of Glasgow, 18 April 1821.
(21) Notes on Roman Law (paginated 1-33).
(22) Notes on legal topics (6 sides unpaginated).
Mottle covers, red leather spine, enclosed in red cardboard case, paginated, pp. 1-74, some blank, bound.
George Finlay's sketch book, with pencil sketches and engravings pasted in, dated 1825 on inside cover, but dates and places range from Scotland (1820), Sicily (1825), Sardinia (1826), to Greece (1828).
Brown mottle notebook, green leather spine, handwritten, paginated, pp. 1-106, with 4 loose sheets.
Cash memorandum 1826-31.
Brown leather notebook, oblong with clasp, handwritten, book plate, pp. 1-80.
Memorandum Book, 'George Finlay in Egina or Athens
Memorandum Book. address London Messrs Finlay Hodgson & Coy
St Helens Place
This includes 'Journal of a Voyage from Athens to England 12 April to June 1832' [the entry begins on 8 April, see p. 13].
Red leather pocket book, handwritten, pp. 1-60, 61-4 are blank, bound. George Finlay's Journal 6 July-28 September 1832. [Liverpool, London, sea voyage to Athens].
Vellum, handwritten on spine 'June 1829 to April 1832', pp. 1-136+3 loose sheets of jottings.
George Finlay's Journal, 1 June 1829-10 April 1832.
Brown leather, gilt letters on spine 'Journal 3', pp. 1-260 (pp. 214-59 are blank). George Finlay's Journal, 1 January 1833-24 June 1848 [not a continuous diary; there are considerable gaps and pp. 113-15 ( = 28 May 1860) contain 'Anecdotes of George King of the Hellenes'. At the end of the book there is a note on Gordon and Church].
Red leather pocket book, handwritten, paginated, pp. 1-127. 'George Finlay's road book July 11. 1835' on inside cover. Travel notes on various journeys in Greece, scenery and route described and time taken for various parts of the journey noted.
See also FIN/GF/A/19 and George Finlay's notes in his copy of W. Gell, The Itinerary of Greece (now D. 57 in BSA Main Library).
Black-red mottle notebook, black calf spine, gilt lettering on spine 'Journal 1835', handwritten, paginated by George Finlay, pp. 1-296+some blank sheets. Loose, newspaper cutting, advertisement for Sketches of Modern Athens
Indexed by George Finlay thus:
'Statistical Questions. Journal of Expedition under the command of General Gordon against the brigands' (begins July 11, 1835).
Observations on the State of Northern Greece Geographical notes
Journal of a visit to Lioussia On the position of Aphidna
Itinerary of a ride round Hymettus
Letters from General Gordon relating to the Expedition [bound in at end]
(1) Thomas Gordon to George Finlay. Neopatra, 20 September 1835. Requesting lodging and containing news of defeat of robbers at Smochovo.
(2) Charles Soutzos [Suzzo] to George Finlay. Hypata, 15/27 September 1835. Concerning contagious fever in Athens, brigandage, and George Finlay's arrival (in French) .
(3) Thomas Gordon to George Finlay. Zeituni (Lamia), 29 September 1835.Concerning brigandage and theft and state of troops in northern Greece, illness of cousin, and expectation of recall.
(4) H. Robinson to George Finlay. Patras, 3 October 1835. Concerning brigandage and theft at Lidoriki.
(5) Thomas Gordon to George Finlay. Zeituni (Lamia), 4 October 1835. Request for arrangement of lodgings in Athens and a note concerning brigandage.
(6) Thomas Gordon to George Finlay. Livadia, 15 October 1835. Concerning ambush by brigands at Agia Marina. Expected arrival in Athens.
(7) Thomas Gordon to George Finlay. Argos, 23 May 1836. Departure, increase of brigandage in Peloponnese, and corruption in government. Remarks on brigandage in northern Greece.
(8) Thomas Gordon to George Finlay. Cairness, 27 August 1836. Letter introducing Mr. Neeld.
Brown mottle boards, calf spine, 'Journal 1837' on spine in gilt lettering, handwritten, pp. i-iv, 1-124, bound. Includes loose rough map of Amorgos.
Journal of a tour to several islands of the archipelago in August and September 1837. pp. i-iv. Memorandum. Subjects of inquiry in travelling.
pp. 1-76. Diary 14 August-23 September (each side paginated).
pp. 77-100. Inscriptions.
pp. 101-20. Extracts from MSS. in possession of Signor Delenda, British Consul at Santorin, including letter to Delenda (pp. 113-18) dated 17 September 1807 from Capt. John Stewart on behalf of Lord Collingwood to British Consul at Santorin -official notice stating intention of protecting the Cyclades from piracy and helping to restore order to local government.
pp. 121-4. The Greek compass [Greek terms].
6 handwritten, unbound quires. Memoranda relating to travels in Middle East
Memoranda of visits to the Wadi Tomlah and Canal of Suez and to the Fyoum [sic] and Lake Moeris [sic]', January, February 1846, pp. 1-12 and pp. 11 [Fayoum visit]. Loose pages at the end regarding a trip between Smyrna, Cairo and Alexandria in October 1845 as well as 2 pages (undated but possibly 1840) which appear to be written at a separate time and contain notes on Mr D.J. Mc Cauley American Consul at Tripoli which discuss the slave trade from Benghazi which includes Greek vessels which take slaves to Scios (Chios) and Smyrna.
'Cairo to Jerusalem. Jerusalem to Dead Sea and Beyrout', unpaginated, 136 pp.+ some loose.
'Memoranda' [random lists of travel requirements and notes on Egypt and Palestine+relevant bibliography] as well as notes on Syria
'Egypt. The social and political conditions of its inhabitants', pp. 1-41 + pp. 1-4 on the pyramids.
'Topography of Jerusalem', unpaginated, 46 pp.+some blanks; this also contains historical notes on Jerusalem and a hand drawn plan of the city
Resources of Syria'. Notes and observations and George Finlay's comments, unpaginated, 16 pp.
Handwritten, unbound. Miscellaneous notes. Includes a note, possibly by Hussey, indicating that was formerly Item 4 (Archaeological sites in Athens) has been removed to FIN/GF/C/9, and the rest have been renumbered.
Historical Memoir on the different races of mankind who have inhabited Greece in ancient and modern times by G. Finlay, K.R.C., Member of the American Antiquarian Society, and Corresponding Member of the Archaeological Institute at Rome (41 sides large quarto).
Handwritten notes on Greek grammar in envelope addressed to George Finlay (16 sides quarto).
Letter from George Finlay on advantages of Salonica as a rail terminus for British communications with India [to 'Your Excellency', unnamed and undated] (16 sides foolscap).
Worn foolscap green paper folder 'Modern Scraps' containing odd comments and impressions of George Finlay, e.g. of Rome from Piazza di Spagna or on the merits of Greece and Rome.
'Personal notes and general reflections'. An account of a visit in 1845 to Cairo and Mehemet Ali and to Upper Egypt.
About 15 copies of single sheet (unpaginated) of proof 'Explanation of the frontispiece' [gold coin of Justinian I] (printed).
17 foolscap sheets, paginated, pp. 1-16. Presented by W. Miller in 1927.
Handwritten copy of correspondence in Liverpool Mail 21 July 1849, vol. 20, no. 1319, 'My Jotting Book. Sketches from Greece' by Tabakraucher [George Finlay].
[This covers a journey from Smyrna to Greece, the condition of Athens, criticism of Elgin's 'robbery' and of the Bavarians.]
Brown mottle, dark-brown calf spine, 'Journal' pasted on spine, hand-written, usually one side only, pp. 1-188, bound.
Journal, 27 May 1850-29 June 1868. Portrait of George Finlay inside the front flyleaf. Contents listed by George Finlay on pp. 1-2 as follows:
Memoranda during a tour to Thessalonika, Constantinople, Brusa, Nicrea, Nicomedia, Sinope, Trebizond and Samsoun (Amisos) in 1850
Itinerary of a visit to England to see the Great exposition by way of Germany and return to Athens by Italy 1851
Visit to Rhodes, Kos, Samos and Chios in the spring of 1853
Correspondence concerning the loss of my passport [with F. Ivich, Director of Austrian Lloyds, Piraes, 23 June and 6 July 1853; Director of Trieste police, 6 July 1853; Editor of The Times, 7 July 1853]
Visit to England in 1854
Visit to Andros in 1858
Excursion to Stelidha, Amaliapolis, Volo, Skiathos and Skopelos in 1858
Visit to Vichy June 17 1859
Tour in Switzerland August
Summer at Cephisia 1860, at Lamira in Andros 1861
Observations on civil war in N. America
Notes concerning disturbances at Athens which commenced 30 June 1863
Red mottle notebook, handwritten, paginated, pp. 1-47+ 1-3. 17 June 1859 left Athens for Marseilles.
Account of expenditure at Vichy 25 June-4 August, thence to Switzerland until 23 September 1859. Then return to Athens via Lyons and Marseilles arriving 6 October 1859.
1860 Expenses of residence at Kephissia 9 March 1860-3 November 1860.
Bound quires, handwritten, pp. 1-99 [+4 sides giving Preface and Contents]. Also loose note marking the FIN/GF/A/16 lost and then found.
'Extracts Letters and Documents relative to the Writings of George Finlay.' Listed by George Finlay as follows :
Extracts and Letters relative to George Finlay's life and writings
Hastings' Journal, meeting Finlay at Athens Decr 1823
Hastings to Finlay April 1828
Gordon to Hastings-Finlay's opinion
'The Times' reported death of Finlay 1828
James MacGregor to his mother [sending condolences on George Finlay's supposed death]
Lord Cochrane to Finlay congratulating him on being alive Octr 1828
Mr Contostavlos to Finlay on his pamphlet 'Essai sur les principes de banque' 
Extract from the 'Journal de Smyrne'
Gordon to Finlay on his pamphlet The Hellenic Kingdom and the Greek nation 1836 
Mr. Robertson to Finlay  Revd John Henry Hill to Finlay 
Col Mure on Battle of Marathon 1842
Col Leake on Battle of Marathon
Mr Freeman's Dedication [to George Finlay of his History of Federal Government]
Mr Clark's Dedication [to George Finlay of his Peloponnesus: Notes of Study and Travel]
Extracts from Letters from Professor Felton
24 Sepr 1854
23 Feby 1855
4 March 1855
29 Octr 1861
Mr Finlay to Professor Felton 
[These entries give the text of the Inscription or Invitation]
I. Minister of War with Silver Medal of lndependence 14 (26) Feby 1836
II. Mr. Rudhart with Gold cross of Order of Redeemer of Greece 3 (15) June 1837
III. Diploma-Member of Natural History Society 1 (13) April 1836
IV. Archaiological Institute of Rome, corresponding member 4 March 1838
V. Diploma-Member of Archaiological Society of Athens 1 Sepr 1838
VI. Diploma-Member of American Antiquarian Society 23 Octr 1838
VII. Demarch of Athens. Election as Provincial Councillor of Attica 7 Decr 1841
VIII. Diploma-Corresponding member of Hellenic Archaiological Society 6 July 1848
IX. Diploma as Honorary Member of the Royal Society of Literature 8 Octr 1849
X. Diploma as LL.D of University of Edinburgh 6 May 1854
XI. List of the writings of George Finlay
XII. Inscription for the monument of Captain Hastings at Poros
Faded black cloth, bound, handwritten, '1868 Journal and accounts' (in George Finlay's hand) pasted on spine, paginated by George Finlay pp. 1-202.
Contents listed by George Finlay thus:
Journal: visit to Switzerland 4 April to 28 October 1868
Expenses of Journey Summary [of expenses]
Letters written [July, August, September 1868; copied into Letter Book]
Green cloth, 'Journal 1869' pasted on spine, paginated in part by George Finlay pp. 1-93, handwritten, bound. Includes loose and pasted newspaper clippings.
(1) Journey from Athens to Switzerland and back, 9 July 1869-6 October 1869 (pp. 1-48, each side paginated).
(2) Notes (pp. 49-80).
Letters written 10 July 1869-30 September 1869 (list of names with occasional note of contents).
(3) Expenses of the visit detailed with some jottings after p. 93 and not paginated (pp. 81-93 and thereafter unpaginated) .
Cream vellum, handwritten, 'ATTIC ITINERARIES' written on spine, paginated, pp. 1-64+ 1-65, bound. Notes of itineraries and time taken en route.
See also George Finlay's copy of W. Gell, The Itinerary of Greece . . ., London, 1819 (now D. 57 in BSA Main Library) with his notes passim and at end further routes, distances, and time taken.
Brown mottle board, leather spine broken, tied with string, bound, paginated pp. 1-102+3 loose photographs (Gambetta, Thiers, and group with George Finlay) ; in poor condition.
Lithographed portraits, scenes, and various miscellaneous items. Items 1-70 were drawn, collected, and (probably) described by Lieut. Krazeisen, 1st Lieut. in the King's Regiment of Bavaria.
Εἰσητήριον διὰ τὸ ἀκπροατήριον τῆς Ἐθνοσυνελεύσεως
(Athens 8 November 1843) Amélie, Reine de la Grèce
Otho King of Greece, Ὄθων Βασιλεὺς τῆς Ἑλλάδος
MS letter of J. Tombasi (Poros, 2 March 1828, in Greek, loose)
Das Fort Palamydes mit einem Teil von Napoli di Romania
Das Hafen Fort Bourdzi Bey Napoli di Romania
A. Mavrocordato (with signature and visiting card)
Andreas Miaulis: (with loose visiting card)
Autograph of Petros Mavromichalis
Beschiessung des Klosters St. Spiridione am Piraeus
MS letter of K. Kanaris to George Finlay (Athens 23 May 1861) (in Greek)
Kanaris (photograph) : note of George Finlay to Soteriades (loose)
Ein Kapitan mit seinen Pallikaren im Gefechte
Karl van Heideck
MS letter of K. Tzavellas to George Finlay (11 October 1843)
Die Fregatte Hellas und das Dampschiff
Die Acropolis van Athen
Short notes on portraits and scenes (in French and German) by Lieut. Krazeisen
Map of the surroundings of Athens (positions of Greek and Turkish forces 6 February-6 May 1827)
Small print of Lord Byron's monument in Hucknell Church near Newstead Abbey
Hastings (photograph of bust)
Clifford ( ,, ,, ,, )
Lithograph of I. Venthulos
(? Clephts) from Kossovo recognised by an Albanian Bey from Ochrida (A.J.B.W.) (in colour)
Dance (in colour)
A. Miaulis (photograph of bust)
Monasteriotes ( ,, ,, ,,)
George Finlay (as a young man)
Street scene in Joannina (in colour)
Roza de Bozaris (demoiselle d'honneur de S.M. la Reine de Grèce)
Printed copy of Discourse, pronounced by Lieut. Col. A. H. Touret at the Funeral of C. Colocotronis (in French)
A. H. Touret (Philhellène français, Lieut. Col., with signature)
MS letter of Ephorate of Athens Archaeological Society to George Finlay (27 March 1861) thanking him for antiquities presented to the Society's museum (in Greek)
George Finlay (as a young man; with coat of arms)
Cutting from the Illustrated London News of 29 April 1854 (archaeological)
Cutting from the Illustrated London News of 10 November 1855
Cutting from the Illustrated London News of 14 February 1857
Cutting from the Illustrated London News of 14 February 1857
Cutting from the Illustrated London News of 16 February 1856
Document no. 6281 from the Military Governor of the Capital to the Nomarch of Attica and Boeotia by hand of George Finlay (Athens 7 April 1844) (loose; in Greek)
Water-colour of Pallikari
(In the back (loose) are 3 photographs: Group photo with George Finlay (undated), M. Thiers (1873), and Gambetta (1873))
Black folder, leather spine tied top, bottom, and side, 'George Finlay' in gilt on front cover, some loose sheets. The A-E categories below have been copied from the type-written sheets in the folder.
The records in Folder A (FIN/GF/A/21/1 - FIN/GF/A/21/7) are miscellaneous papers.
The records in Folder B (FIN/GF/A/21/8 - FIN/GF/A/21/15) are passports.
The records in Folder C (FIN/GF/A/21/16 - FIN/GF/A/21/32) are diplomas, honours conferred, etc.
The records in Folder D (FIN/GF/A/21/33 - FIN/GF/A/21/40) are miscellaneous correspondence.
The records in Folder E (FIN/GF/A/21/41) are miscellaneous photographs There is a miscellaneous newspaper clipping at the end (FIN/GF/A/21/42)
Proposed organization of the Hellenic Association 'for the promotion of Education in Greece.' (in Greek).
Proposed organisation of the Hellenic Association 'for the promotion of Education in Greece.' (in English).
Turkish document addressed to George Finlay (in Turkish).
Three copies of the Notice of George Finlay's Funeral (15 January 1875) by Nectar Finlay (in Greek).
Facsimile of document of January 1821 signed by Jeremias, Archbishop of Constantinople and Patriarch (in Greek).
Facsimile of Latin document relating to Baldwin, Count of Flanders and Hainault, with transcription.
Print from Greek Press Panagiou Taphou (1834).
England to Malta-to Mr. Finlay (George) avec son domestique from le Maire de Marez (26 June 1825).
London to Calais or Boulogne-to Captain George Finlay avec deux domestiques from the French Ambassador in London (12 October 1826).
For Smyrna-to M. Georges Finlay gentilhomme Anglais avec un domestique from Robert Gordon, British Ambassador at the Sublime Porte Ottomane (28 August 1829).
Malta to Napoli di Romania-to Mr. George Findlay (sic) aged twenty-six years a British subject from Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby, Lieut. Governor of Malta (15 October 1831).
Marseilles to Naples-to Mr. George Findlay (sic) from W. H. Richardson, Vice Consul of Great Britain for the Dept. des Bouches du Rhone (19 September 1831 ) .
For Greece-to Mr. and Mrs. George Finlay etc. from Sir Edmund Lyons (11 September 1841).
Greece to London-to George Finlay Esq. from the Rt. Hon. Thomas Wyse (11 May 1851).
For travel on the Continent-to Mr. George Finlay and his three nieces from Henry John Viscount Palmerston, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in London (30 July 1851).
Lieut. John Finlay - his Burgess Ticket of Glasgow (3 July 1778).