||Afyonkarahissar (the Black Castle Opium) is a prosperous city in western Turkey renowned for its castle, which is perched on the top of a 201 m. black rock, and the production of opium. The fortifications of the city might date back to the Hittitian period. Afyonkarahissar was occupied and ruled successively by the Phrygians, the Lydians, the Persians, Alexander the Great, the Seleucids, the Byzantines and the Arabs. It was the Turks who named the city after its black castle when they conquered it in 1071. The re-conquest of the city in August 27, 1922 marked the beginning of the end for the victorious Greek invasion in Anatolia during the Greco-Turkish War of 1922.