Martyrium of Apostle Philip
|Collection||Byzantine Research Fund|
Trotman, Corporal J.
|Scope and Content||Hierapolis. Caria.The martyrium. This is a Hellenic Society photograph. It is numbered (H.S. 3153) in pencil at the back. Further annotation in pencil survives which states it is a 'church' but does not identify it. See SPHS log entry for more detail.|
|Further information||The ancient city of Hierapolis (Pamukkale) was, allegedly, founded by Eumenes II, King of Pergamun (197-159 BC) while, according to the ancient myth, god Apollo was the founder of the Sacred City. Hierapolis has also been associated with Pluto, god of the underworld: the underground volcanic activity in the region results to the extraordinary effect created by hot springs leaving, as the water flows down the slopes, layers of white calcium carbonate built up in steps, a physical activity reflected in the modern name of the city (Pamukkale means Cotton Castle). The city, which in 133 became part of the Roman province of Asia, flourished in the 2nd and 3rd c. Decline started in the 6th c. and the city was abandoned after the 1334 earthquake.
The fourth-century Nymphaeum, the temple of Apollo, founded in the Hellenistic period, the Plutonium, the sacred cave-entrance to the underworld, the Theatre and the fifth-century Martyrium of Apostle Philip are some of the city monuments which survive to date in ruins. The latter was an impressive octagonal rotunda with a crypt located outside the walls by the northern part of the city, which allegedly contained the remains of the apostle an ancient tradition associates him with Hierapolis mentioning that he was crucified there in 80 AD.
[BSA SPHS 01/1237.3153], Hierapolis: Ruins of large church, 1873